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Glossary

Atherosclerosis

The deposition of fatty plaques in the arterial walls, thereby causing narrowing of the channels and reduction of blood supply.

Autoimmune

An immune response to "self" tissues or components. Such a response usually has pathological consequences leading to autoimmune diseases.

            
Cataract

A clouding of the lens of the eye due to the formation of certain types of crystals and deposits.

               
Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is also known as immune-mediated diabetes mellitus, juvenile onset diabetes, and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this case the body does not produce enough insulin. Insulin injections are required to treat this condition. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, treating them as if they were a foreign invader. This is called an autoimmune response.
Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is also known as insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. In this type of diabetes the body does produce insulin, but for some reason, the cells in their bodies are resistant to insulin’s action or they don’t make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes most often occurs in adulthood, thus the term adult-onset diabetes. It may have no noticeable symptoms or only mild symptoms for years before diabetes is detected.   90-95% of all cases of diabetes in people over the age of 20 are type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes appears during pregnancy in women with no previous history of type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It usually goes away after pregnancy but in some cases the women will develop type 2 diabetes. It is mostly confined to women who are overweight, or have a parent or sibling with diabetes. Hispanic, Native American, Asian, or African American are more prone to diabetes than other races.
Diuretic

An agent that either promotes or increases the amount of urine excretion.

                       
Epicatechin
(-) Epicatechin, a major polyphenolic component of green tea is reported to have insulin mimetic action with protective effects on erythrocytes in a manner similar to insulin. (-) epicatechin also offers antioxidant protection against lipid peroxidation and inhibits platelet aggregation. (-) Epicatechin effects would be beneficial in supporting the management of secondary complications of diabetes. Polyphenols were shown to be useful in the long term preservation of rat pancreatic islets in vitro under physiological conditions. The islets showed significant enhancement of insulin secretion on the 40th day.
Fenufibers
Fenufibers , a registered trademark of Sabinsa Corporation, is the fiber-rich fraction obtained from Fenugreek seeds. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, Family: Leguminosae) is an annual herbaceous plant, 30 to 60 cm in height. The herb is native to North Africa and countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean and is widely cultivated in India. The seeds of Fenugreek have been used as a spice since ancient times and are commonly used as a condiment in Indian homes.
Galactomannan

A polysaccharide constituted by units made up of galactose and mannose.

Galactose

A monosaccharide, a constituent of many oligo- and polysaccharides occurring in gums, pectins and mucilages.

Silbinol
Silbinol is a trademark of SABINSA CORPORATION for a standardized extract obtained from the heartwood and bark of Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino) useful in maintaining healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
Glucagon

A hormone secreted by the alpha cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The effect of glucagon is reciprocal to that of insulin - it raises blood glucose levels by causing the breakdown of glycogen in the liver. Glucagon also has lipolytic activity.

Glucose tolerance test

A diagnostic procedure which determines the rate at which the cells of the body take up glucose from the blood. It is an index of the severity of diabetes. The test is administered in the morning after an overnight fast. First a sample of "fasting blood" is taken. Then the patient drinks a test solution of glucose, after which blood samples are taken at hourly intervals upto six hours. A diagnosis is made by comparing hourly blood glucose levels of the patient to standard values.

Glucocorticoid

Steroidal drugs such as dexamethasone used in the management of respiratory conditions like bronchial asthma.

Glycation

Direct reaction between glucose and body constituents such as proteins, resulting in degenerative changes.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin
Analytical studies have determined that a single hemoglobin AIc test (HbAIc) can diagnose diabetes with confidence. Sugar that is not used for energy is left in the blood, where it attaches itself to the hemoglobin, which is part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen, in a process called glycosylation. The HbAIc test measures the amount of sugar that is attached to the hemoglobin in red blood cells, with results given as a percentage.
Glycosuria

The presence of glucose in the urine.

                             
Hypercholesterolemia

Elevated total serum cholesterol levels - associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. People with total serum cholesterol levels between 130 -160 mg /dl and greater than 200 mg/dl are considered to be at "borderline-high" and "high" risk respectively of developing cardiovascular disease.

Hyperglycemia

An excess of sugar in the blood.

Hypertension

The medical term for high blood pressure, which is indicated by persistent elevation above normal limits. The normal: 120-150 systolic pressure (when the heart contracts and 80-100 diastolic pressure (when the heart is at rest). Blood pressure is a measure of the pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels, produced by the beating of the heart.

                       
Insulin

A hormone secreted by the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The net effect of insulin is to convert metabolizable fuels into forms which can be stored in the body. Insulin accelerates the uptake of glucose into peripheral tissue, thereby lowering blood glucose concentrations.

Islets of Langerhans

Little islands of cells located in the pancreas, named after their discoverer, Paul Langerhans.

                    
Ketoacidosis

A complication of diabetes mellitus that results from by products of fat metabolism (ketones) when glucose is not available for a fuel source.

                     
Macrovascular disease

Collective term for hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Mannose

A hexose monosaccharide (6 carbon sugar) with a structure very similar to glucose.

Microvascular disease

Disease at the capillary blood vessel level.

                 
Nephropathy

Degenerative disease of the kidneys - may ultimately lead to a requirement for kidney transplantation.

                  
Peripheral vascular disease(PVD)

A variety of disorders including varicose veins and atherosclerosis of the extremities; alterations in blood viscosity and red blood cell function predispose people with diabetes to intermittent claudication (pain in the calf upon exertion) skin ulcers and gangrene, and ultimately amputation.

Peptide

Building unit of proteins, made up of amino acids

Postprandial Following a meal.
                   
Retinopathy

Degenerative disease of the retina - may lead to blindness.

                       
Saponin

Sapogenin glycoside. A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each saponin consists of a sapogenin which constitutes the aglucon moiety of the molecule, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or triterpene and the sugar moiety may be glucose, galacatose, pentose or methylpentose.

Somatostatin

A hormone secreted by the delta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. This hormone regulates the secretion of glucagon and insulin.

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